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Health Services

3D/4D Fetal Screening
3D/4D Fetal Screening with Picture
4D Ultrasound (4 Pictures + Video)

Not your ordinary 1970 2D ultrasound where it was used to only examine the fetus, assess amniotic fluid and look for birth defects, among other things!  The more-detailed 3D and 4D ultrasounds are performed to closely examine suspected fetal anomalies, such as cleft lip and spinal cord issues, or to monitor something specific.

3D ultrasound uses sound waves and multiple two-dimensional images that are taken at various angles and then placed together to form a three-dimensional rendering of your baby in your womb.  So, instead of seeing just a profile view of your baby’s face, you are able to see the whole surface (a regular photo).  4D ultrasound is similar, but the image shows movement (like a video).  Where you are able to see your baby doing things in real time (like opening and closing his eyes, yawing, smiling or even sucking his/her thumb).

As exciting as it may be to hear your baby's heartbeat and see your baby in action, 3D/4D ultrasounds are only officially recommended when your practitioner deems them necessary for medical reasons (they are not a part of a routine prenatal exam).   Remember, there will be plenty of opportunities to take photos and make memories when your baby is born. In the meantime, keep ultrasounds to a minimum and look forward to the day you can see your baby in person (no technology necessary!)

3D/4D Fetal Screening with Picture

Not your ordinary 1970 2D ultrasound where it was used to only examine the fetus, assess amniotic fluid and look for birth defects, among other things!  The more-detailed 3D and 4D ultrasounds are performed to closely examine suspected fetal anomalies, such as cleft lip and spinal cord issues, or to monitor something specific.

3D ultrasound uses sound waves and multiple two-dimensional images that are taken at various angles and then placed together to form a three-dimensional rendering of your baby in your womb.  So, instead of seeing just a profile view of your baby’s face, you are able to see the whole surface (a regular photo).  4D ultrasound is similar, but the image shows movement (like a video).  Where you are able to see your baby doing things in real time (like opening and closing his eyes, yawing, smiling or even sucking his/her thumb).

As exciting as it may be to hear your baby's heartbeat and see your baby in action, 3D/4D ultrasounds are only officially recommended when your practitioner deems them necessary for medical reasons (they are not a part of a routine prenatal exam).   Remember, there will be plenty of opportunities to take photos and make memories when your baby is born. In the meantime, keep ultrasounds to a minimum and look forward to the day you can see your baby in person (no technology necessary!)

4D Ultrasound (4 Pictures + Video)

Not your ordinary 1970 2D ultrasound where it was used to only examine the fetus, assess amniotic fluid and look for birth defects, among other things!  The more-detailed 3D and 4D ultrasounds are performed to closely examine suspected fetal anomalies, such as cleft lip and spinal cord issues, or to monitor something specific adsad.

3D ultrasound uses sound waves and multiple two-dimensional images that are taken at various angles and then placed together to form a three-dimensional rendering of your baby in your womb.  So, instead of seeing just a profile view of your baby’s face, you are able to see the whole surface (a regular photo).  4D ultrasound is similar, but the image shows movement (like a video).  Where you are able to see your baby doing things in real time (like opening and closing his eyes, yawing, smiling or even sucking his/her thumb).

As exciting as it may be to hear your baby's heartbeat and see your baby in action, 3D/4D ultrasounds are only officially recommended when your practitioner deems them necessary for medical reasons (they are not a part of a routine prenatal exam).   Remember, there will be plenty of opportunities to take photos and make memories when your baby is born. In the meantime, keep ultrasounds to a minimum and look forward to the day you can see your baby in person (no technology necessary!)

Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm Screening Test

AN ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM:
It is a dilatation or ballooning out of an area in the lower part of the aorta. The Aorta is the major blood vessel that supplies blood to the whole body. The aorta is about the thickness of a garden hose, runs from the heart through the center of the chest and abdomen. Because the aorta is the main blood-supplying artery, a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause life-threatening bleeding. Depending on the rate at which the aortic aneurysm is growing, the treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. Once an abdominal aortic aneurysm is found, doctors will closely monitor it so that surgery can be planned if it is necessary. An emergency surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can be risky.

Symptoms: 
The majority of the aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic. They tend to grow slowly, remain symptomless and undetected; therefore they are called silent killers. However, when they enlarge they may cause pain in abdomen, chest and lower back. They may give a pulsating sensation in the same areas. The risk of rupture in the symptomatic aneurysms is pretty high. There may be dizziness, passing out and nausea & vomiting.

Bladder Screening Test

Bladder cancer is the 4th most common cancer in men & 8th most common cancer in women. It is more common in men than in women, and more common in whites than in African Americans. The American Cancer Society estimates that in the year 2007 there were about 50,000 men & 17,000 women with newly diagnosed with bladder cancer & 14,000 deaths as a result of it. The cancer is generally limited to the inside lining of the bladder in cases detected early but can extend into the muscular layer if there is a delay in diagnosis which can result in a poorer prognosis. There are 3 types of bladder cancer. They are Transitional cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma & Adenocarcinoma. In the U.S. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most frequently encountered.

Screening for bladder cancer is done on at risk population who are yet to show any signs of the disease & is at an early stage with a greater chance for a cure or a better life expectancy.

Risk factors for bladder cancer are smoking, old age, workplace exposure to certain chemicals ( rubber, leather, paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products), family history of bladder cancer, schistosomiasis (a parasitic infection of the bladder), chronically inflamed bladder, previous radiation exposure to the pelvic region ( due to treatment of other cancers), taking of certain anticancer drugs,  long term use of urinary catheters, drinking water that has high levels of arsenic or chlorine etc.

Bladder cancer can be without any symptoms or have symptoms like having increased frequency of voiding (urinary frequency), pain during voiding (dysuria), cloudy urine, recurrent urinary tract infections or blood in the urine (hematuria).

If screening tests are found to be abnormal, then further tests called diagnostic tests are needed to confirm the existence of bladder cancer. The following tests are currently used to screen for bladder cancer.

Cystoscopy
In Cystoscopy a thin instrument with a light & lens for viewing at its end is inserted through the urethra & into the bladder. The bladder is then filled with a transparent fluid after which the operator is able to visualize the inside portion of the bladder. Any abnormality on the walls of the bladder is noted & samples of tissue can be taken forbiopsy. It is normally done under a local anesthetic.

Urine cytology
In this test a sample of urine is checked under a microscope for abnormal looking cancerous cells. However absence of such cells does not rule out bladder cancer. Further tests are usually needed to confirm or rule out the diagnosis if symptoms are suggestive of bladder cancer.

Microscopic Urinalysis for hematuria
Hematuria or the presence of red blood cells in the urine may be caused by bladder cancer or by some other conditions. It is done by viewing a urine sample under a microscope or using a special test strip called dipsticks.

Urine biomarkers for bladder cancer
These are chemicals, proteins and chromosomal changes found in the urine of patients which are used to detect bladder cancer. They are thought to be made by bladder cancer cells. They include UroVysion test, ImmunoCyt test and NMP-22 test. At present these tests are not done on a routine basis but their use is increasing.

False-positive & False-negative test results:
Screening test results can appear to be abnormal even though no cancer is present. This is called a false-positive test result. It can cause anxiety to the patient & his or her family and requires further invasive procedures which are unnecessary & have risks. Alternatively screening test results can appear to be normal even though bladder cancer is present. This is called a false negative test result. This can lead to costly delay in seeking appropriate medical care.

It has yet to be proved that the use of screening tests for bladder cancer will decrease the risk of dying from it. Screening for bladder cancer is still under study and there are ongoing clinical trials taking place.


Breast Screening Test

BREAST:
Living a healthy lifestyle can prevent the breast diseases. There are 7 ways.
1•    Maintain a healthy weight.
2•    Exercise.
3•    Limit alcohol.
4•    Eat veggies.
5•    Be aware of your family history.
6•    Regular screening.
7•    Genetic testing for BRCA mutation.

Breast cancer develops from breast cells. When it occurs it invades and erodes the surrounding healthy tissue or spreads to distant areas of the body.
The screening exams are meant to detect the breast cancer before they gives the symptoms, for example a lump in the breast. Usually the breast cancers causing symptoms are more likely to already have spread in tissues beyond the breast. 

Symptoms:
1•    A lump in a breast.
2•    A pain in the armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman's menstrual period
3•    Pitting of the skin of the breast; like the skin of an orange
4•    A rash around or on one of the nipples
5•    Lump in one of the armpits.
6•    An area of thickened tissue in a breast.
7•    Abnormal discharge from the nipple.
8•    The change in shape of the nipple (gets inverted).
9•    The change in size or shape of the breast.
10 - The nipple-skin or breast-skin start to peel or scale.

Carotid Artery Screening Test

There are two carotid arteries on each side of the neck which carry oxygen-rich blood to the brain. In Carotid artery disease or carotid artery stenosis there is narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries due to accumulation of fat and cholesterol over a period of time called atherosclerosis. These results in a material called plaque. In severe cases there can be a complete occlusion of the carotid artery. 

As the narrowing in the carotid arteries takes place over a prolonged period of time, there may no symptoms till a Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) or a stroke happens. A transient ischemic attack also called a "mini-stroke" is a warning sign of an impending stroke & is a medical emergency. It occurs when a blood clot temporarily blocks a carotid artery which supplies blood to the brain. Hence the symptoms are temporary and may last a few minutes to a few hours. A TIA increases the risk of subsequent stroke by upto 10 times.
 
When the blood flow through the carotid arteries is diminished it can lead to a stroke or a “brain attack”. In a stroke there is a lack of blood supply & oxygen to the brain. When this occurs for more than 3-4 minutes, the brain starts to die.

A stroke can occur if:
The caliber of the carotid artery becomes extremely narrowed
There’s a rupture in a carotid artery that has pre-existing atherosclerosis
A piece of plaque breaks off and migrates to one of the  smaller arteries supplying the brain
A blood clot forms and obstructs the carotid artery

Symptoms of carotid Artery Disease:
Sudden loss of vision or blurred vision in one or both eyes
Weakness and/or numbness on one side of the body, either in an arm, face, or leg.
Slurring of speech, difficulty talking, not comprehending others conversations
In coordination, loss of balance, difficulty in walking
Dizziness, confusion, memory disturbances, headache, 
Difficulty in swallowing
 
How is carotid artery disease diagnosed?
It is important to see your doctor regularly for a physical. He may detect an abnormal sound, called a bruit on the neck which may signify carotid artery disease. This results from turbulent blood flow in the carotid artery due to the obstruction. This is a good way to screen for carotid artery disease but it may not pick up all blockages. 

Diagnostic tests include:
Carotid ultrasound (standard or Doppler). This test uses high-frequency sound waves to image the carotid arteries looking for narrowing or blockages plaques by blood clots. A Doppler ultrasound visualizes the flow of blood through the carotids. 
Carotid angiogram: It is an invasive imaging procedure where a catheter which is a thin & flexible tube is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg, and guided to the carotid arteries. Narrowing or blockages can be seen on a live X-ray screen as contrast dye is injected in the carotid arteries. The need for treatment can then be evaluated.
Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA): MRA uses a magnetic field and radio waves to provide images of the carotid arteries in detail. This test shows the degree of stenosis in the carotids.
Computed tomography angiogram (CTA): By injecting intravenous contrast dye, a high-resolution, 3D cross-sectional image of the carotid artery can be obtained to assess the degree of stenosis. There is some radiation involved in this procedure.
Computerized tomography (CT Scan): CT of the brain produces three-dimensional (3D) images of the brain by using X-rays. Radiological contrast material can also be injected into a vein to view any damaged areas of the brain. This scan is usually done after a TIA or stroke has occurred. 


Gallbladder Screening Test

THE GALLBLADDER: The storage sac for bile, is sitting in the right upper abdomen beneath the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced in the liver. Before taking a meal gallbladder is full of bile, giving it a pear shaped appearance. After a meal it gets emptied giving a deflated balloon appearance.

Conditions of the Gallbladder:
1•    Gallbladder stones
2•    Inflammation of the Gallbladder
3•    Gallbladder cancer

Symptoms:
All the above conditions can give the same symptoms:
1•    Pain
2•    Nausea
3•    Vomiting
4•    Fever

Although Gallbladder cancer is rare, it is usually found at late stages when symptoms appear.

ULTRASOUND is the best test to see gallstones and gallbladder wall.

Gender Identification Test

When a child is born, a quick glance between the legs (during a pelvic ultrasound) determines the gender label that the child will carry for life!  Gender Identification (biological gender) is a category to which an individual is assigned on the basis of their physical anatomy at birth.  This also includes sex chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, and internal reproductive structures.

Kidney Screening Test

URINARY SYSTEM:
It consists of the kidneys, their ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. The kidneys produce the urine; the ureters drain the urine from kidneys to the bladder, which stores it. The stored urine is then expelled out of the body through urethra. By the process of urine formation, kidneys filter the blood; eliminate the metabolic waste, any excess of ions out of the body. This is how kidneys maintain homeostasis of water, pH, ions & blood pressure.

CONDITIONS OF KIDNEYS:
1 -   Congenital anomalies
2-    Polycystic kidney diseases
3-    Kidney stones
4 -   Tumors
5 -   Kidney failure
6 -   Urinary tract infections
7 -   Inflammatory conditions
8 -   Immune system conditions

ULTRASOUND EXAM OF THE KIDNEYS: can detect any congenital abnormality, kidney cysts, kidney stones and kidney tumors.

URINARY BLADDER: is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine from the kidneys. It is one of the body organs that people pay the least attention to, until it stops working.
Ultrasound technology can detect the stones in the bladder.

BLADDER CANCER is the 6th most common cancer in USA. It begins in the bladder wall in the cells lining the inside of the bladder. It usually affects the older adults but it can occur at any age.

 Symptoms:  
1 -   Blood in urine (hematuria) — Blood in the urine could be microscopic to bright red colored or dark cola colored.
2 -   Frequent desires to urinate.  
3 -   Difficulty & pain while urinating.
4 -   Pain in the lower back.
5 -   Pain in the lower abdomen & pelvis.

The ultrasound can help to determine the size of the bladder cancer and if there is spread in the surrounding organs or tissues. When it is diagnosed at an early stage it is highly treatable. Recurrence is very common, and for this reason a cancer survivor is followed up for years to check any bladder cancer recurrence.

Liver Screening Test

THE LIVER: is the largest, solid organ in the body. This reddish brown organ is situated on the right side of the upper abdomen, protected by the rib cage. It consists of a bigger right lobe and a smaller left lobe, weighing about 3 lbs. It is a vital organ for the body’s metabolism that plays a major role in filtering the blood coming from digestive tract before it is supplied to the rest of the body. Other main functions are glycogen storage, bile production, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and drug and chemical detoxification.

CONDITIONS OF THE LIVER:
1•    Hepatitis
2•    Cirrhosis, when normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
3•    Liver Cancer

Symptoms of liver diseases:
1•    Weakness
2•    Fatigue
3•    Weight loss
4•    Nausea & vomiting
5•    Yellow discoloration of skin called jaundice

ULTRASOUND EXAM of the abdomen can detect various liver diseases, like fatty liver, cirrhosis and even liver cancer.

Pelvic Screening Test

ULTRASOUND OF THE PELVIS:
Pelvic ultrasound in WOMEN assesses the health of:
1•    Uterus
2•    Cervix
3•    Fallopian Tubes
4•    Ovaries
5•    Urinary Bladder
6•    Obstetrical ultrasound assesses the health and growth of the embryo or fetus during the pregnancy. It can also give info of some of the pregnancy related complications.
In MEN it assesses the health of:
7•    Prostate Glands
8•    Seminal Vesicles
9•    Urinary Bladder

Pelvis ultrasound could be done:
Transabdominal: In this scan a small amount of the gel is put over the skin of the lower abdomen and scan is done through the gel. The patient’s bladder needs to be full.
Transvaginally (For women): It is an internal ultrasound in which the probe lies in the vagina. The probe is about 2cms in diameter covered with a disposable sheath. A small amount of gel is applied at the tip of the probe and then it is gently inserted in the vagina. It is cleaned and sterilized after every use. Transvaginal ultrasound produces the better images because the probe lies closer to the pelvic structures. In transvaginal scan the patient’s bladder needs to be completely empty.
Transrectally (For men): It involves inserting of the probe into rectum.


Usually the symptoms experienced in pelvic conditions are:
1•    Pain
2•    Abnormal Bleeding
3•    Menstrual problems

Ultrasound can identify the masses like ovarian cysts, Uterine Fibroids, Ovarian and Uterine cancers. It also can detect any congenital abnormality of the uterus, locate IUD, endometrial conditions, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Peripheral Artery (Lower Legs) Screening

PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE (PAD): It is a common but a serious medical condition in which narrowing of the arteries usually of the extremities Occur. This narrowing is the result of a plaque buildup (fatty deposits) in the lumen of the arteries especially of the lower limbs, that compromises the blood flow to keep up with the demand (LEG PAIN WHILE WALKING, being a common symptom).It could be a sign of the widespread involvement of the other arteries in the body like arteries to the heart or brain. People commonly don’t know they have it until they have a heart attack or stroke.

RISK FACTORS:
1•    Smoking
2•    Age over 50
3•    High cholesterol level
4•    Diabetes
5•    High blood pressure
6•    Family history
7•    Obesity
8•    Lack of exercise

SYMPTOMS:
The main symptom of PAD is pain, fatigue, burning, and achiness in the muscles of the foot, calves or thighs when walking faster, uphill, climbing stairs or walk for longer distances. This gradually becomes worse and pain may even occur while at rest or lying down.

COMPLICATIONS:
1•    Severe ischemia may lead to gangrene of foot and may need amputation
2.     Heart attack
3.     Stroke

DIAGNOSES:
1•    Blood tests may show high cholesterol & triglycerides levels
2•    Doppler ultrasound
3•    MRA
4•    CTA

TREATMENT:
1.    Avoid the risk factors
2.    Medications to control diabetes, hypertension, pain killers and medicines that prevent blood clots
3.    Surgery   a) Angioplasty    b) Bypass surgery

Spleen Screening Test

SPLEEN: is a very vascular reddish purple, organ, situated in the left upper abdomen protected by the rib cage. It is shaped like a fist, with varying size and weight.
It is a largest lymphatic organ in the body. It plays a very important role in the immune function because it purifies the blood and stores blood cells. It also helps fight certain bacteria.

CONDITIONS OF THE SPLEEN:
1•    Enlarged spleen or splenomegaly
2•    Accessory spleen
3•    Sickle cell disease
4•    Thrombocytopenia

ULTRASOUND EXAM OF SPLEEN: can detect spleen enlargement.
An enlarged spleen may cause:
1•    No symptoms  
2•    Pain that may spread to the left shoulder
3•    Feeling full without eating or after eating only a small amount
4•    Easy tiredness
5•    Frequent infections
6•    Easy bruising or bleeding

Thyroid Screening Test

Thyroid cancer occurs in the cells of the thyroid — a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of